Aluminum die casting molds: from design to production

Die casting molds are used in various industrial sectors: here is what can be created and how they are designed and produced

Die casting is a very common procedure in industrial production and is used to create accessories, components and objects of various kinds. In order to realize high quality products, functional and in accordance with the reference project, it is necessary to rely on companies that produce die casting moulds studied in detail. But what is the purpose of a die casting mold and what are the phases that lead from design to production? Facciamo chiarezza.

A cosa serve uno stampo per pressofusione

Con pressofusione si fa riferimento al procedimento industriale che permette di iniettare un metallo liquido in uno stampo apposito, al fine di realizzare prodotti di alluminio o altre leghe metalliche.

Gli stampi sono richiesti per realizzare prodotti di ogni tipo, dai componenti dell’automotive, all’arredamento e design. Il prodotto finale è composto da un unico pezzo di metallo, non ha porosità ed è molto resistente. Tra gli oggetti di design più famosi nati proprio dalla tecnologia della pressofusione spicca lo spremiagrumi Juicy, creato da Philippe Starck per Alessi.

Gli stampi per pressofusione hanno quindi un ruolo cruciale nella buona riuscita del progetto. Infatti, sono realizzati con un acciaio molto resistente, capace di sopportare le temperature di fusione dei metalli introdotti nello stampo allo stato liquido. E per tale motivo, nel momento in cui si studia il progetto, bisogna tenere conto che esistono tre tipi di pressofusione:

  • La pressofusione sotto pressione, dove la pressione rimane costante fino a quando il metallo liquido all’interno dello stampo non è solidificato
  • La pressofusione a bassa pressione, dove il metallo fuso è introdotto nello stampo grazie a un gas e non con un pistone
  • La pressofusione per gravità, dove appunto il metallo entra nello stampo mosso dalla forza di gravità.

Esistono poi delle accortezze da avere quando si realizza lo stampo, per esempio deve essere più grande rispetto all’oggetto che si vuol produrre, perché il metallo tende a restringersi quando passa dallo stato liquido a quello solido.

The choice of a reliable company specializing in the production of die-casting molds is crucial: it must accompany the customer at every stage of the project.

How to design the die-casting mold

The die-casting mold is composed mainly of two types of elements: pins or dowels and dies, which together make up the piece. In addition to these, there are the components that allow you to close and open the mold and extract the final product. In the production of the mould it is fundamental to pay attention not only to the pieces that compose it, but also to the dimensions, the angles and the inclinations.

In the best production companies, the customer is at the center of the project: he communicates the needs and, on the basis of these, the mould is designed. The needs are the most varied, that's why a good laboratory must be able to make very large molds, some reaching 55 tons, and perform precision work in the order of a few hundredths of a millimeter.

Before going into production it is therefore essential to devote both to the feasibility study and to the design of the mold, which is performed by specialized companies with specific software and devices.

During the design it is necessary to take into account the weight and pressure exerted by the injected metal, but also the cooling time. In order to recognize the reliability of a company, it is advisable to check the certifications they have related to raw materials and heat treatments.

How the mold is produced

After having designed the mold in detail, production begins. Numerous tests are carried out and the molds themselves are subjected to checks and inspections to ensure their effectiveness. Moreover, the customer can count on an after-sales service, useful to immediately solve any problems related to the final production.