One of the most interesting topics concerning the study of Space is the force of gravity on Mars: how much is the force of gravity on Mars and how is it measured.
In the study of Space and everything related to it, one of the topics that have always fascinated the human being is the force of gravity, which determines the weight of a body. It varies a lot, in fact, from planet to planet. One of the factors that is being studied for the most is the gravity on Mars, also in view of a possible future colonization of the planet.
The study of the force of gravity on Mars
Known as the red planet, Mars is the fourth planet in the solar system, measuring the order of distance from the sun, and is being studied for many years, as it is more similar to the earth than all others in the solar system. This also makes it a possible planet to colonize, and all space missions turn in this direction. Also for this reason it was very interesting to study the gravity of Mars.
Gravity on Mars
The gravity on Mars is in fact responsible for the change in weight of a body on its surface compared to that of the Earth. This weight is in fact calculated by the value of the gravitational force that is exerted on its mass. But if the mass depends on the type of matter of which the body is composed, as well as the quality of the same, and is therefore the same in any place, the weight varies with respect to the gravitational force, which attracts the body to the planet on which it is located. So if on Earth such force is 9,8 m/s2 for a gram, on Mars, which has a smaller mass than Earth, gravity acceleration on Mars is 0,377 g. This means that the weight of a body on the red planet is 2.65 times less than it is on our planet. This happens because the gravity on Mars is 38% of that on Earth.
Effects of Mars Gravity
Mars gravity, among other things, has been the cause of a number of events that mark the planet's history. Starting with the fact that due to this low gravity, it was unable to retain its own atmosphere, dispersing it and making it the inhospitable planet it is today.
The new map of Mars' gravitational field
In fairly recent times, Study of the orbital fluctuations of some satellites has allowed us to make a new map of gravity on Mars. These satellites, orbiting around the planet, have a non-uniform trajectory, as the gravitational attraction on the surface of the same is not equal in every place, but subject to slight changes. Thanks to these studies, an international research team, under the guidance of researcher Antonio Genova, has analyzed the entire planet, creating the gravitational map of Mars ever processed. This map carefully reports the variations of gravity through the representation with different colors. To realize it have been processed data collected over 16 years. They explained the researchers, this work has allowed to highlight gravitational anomalies of about 100 km. The resolution of this representation allows you to outline the changes in the crust of the planet in the history of the same.
What tells the gravity on Mars
The map of gravity on Mars has therefore allowed us to discover how there was, billions of years ago, a system of underground channels, which transported water and sediment to the plains. The gravitational anomaly could have caused a bending of the lithosphere, which led to the formation of the volcanic plateau of Tharsis.
Other evidence emerged from the gravitational variations of the planet, is the existence of a liquid part of the core. Not only: it was possible to verify how in winter, it solidifies an important amount of carbon dioxide, which leads to the formation of dry ice.
The colonization of Mars: hypotheses and forecasts
To know the gravity on Mars is also important in order to study the possible habitability of the planet. On the other hand, colonization seems to be considered one of the inevitable steps in the development of the future of humanity. Although at present without adequate protection human life is not possible, the characteristics of Mars are those closer to Earth than the other planets. However, for the moment, research has not led to a solution in this sense, as there are still too many incompatible parameters.